Distillation is a process of separating components from a liquid mixture. They separate based on their difference in volatility. It is commonly used to prepare spirits or beverages with high alcohol content. Alcohol poses a higher volatility compared to water. So increasing the temperature of a mixture of the two, vapor bubbles begin to form. The bubbles contain more alcohol vapor than water vapor. The vapor is collected and cooled down. Then the vapor is condensed and a mixture with high alcohol content obtained.
The drawing shows a retort (left) containing the mixture. A burner under the retort heats up the mixture. The vapor leaves the retort by the neck into a round flask. Water is running over the flask to keep its temperature low. The vapor condenses in the flask and is collected at the bottom of it.

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